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a Contemplative's Pali to English Dictionary

(a work in progress)

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(updated 11-02-05 with 61 Pali terms & 18 English terms defined)

ubhato-bhága-vimutta: the 'both-ways-liberated one', is the name of one class of noble disciples (ariya-puggala, q.v.). It is a term that was only used a few times in the Suttas, so it is not completely clear what this term means. One suggestion comes in the Kitagiri Sutta (M 70), where we find one who is 'both-ways-liberated' is liberated in 2 ways by way of all 8 absorptions (jhána, q.v.) as well as by insight (vipassaná, q.v.). In M. 70 it is said:

Kitagiri Sutta (M 70)
''Who, o monks, is a both-ways-liberated one'? If someone in his own person has reached the 8 liberations (absorptions), and through wise penetration the cankers (ásava, q.v.) have become extinguished, such a one is called a both-ways-liberated one.''

Cf. D. 15.

In the widest sense, one is both-ways-liberated if one has reached one or the other of the absorptions, and one or the other of the supermundane paths (cf. A. IX, 44). The first liberation is also called 'liberation of mind' (cetovimutti), the latter liberation through wisdom' (paññá-vimutti).

In the Mahàli Sutta (D 6) there is presented absorption (samadhi) "with the double object in view" as one in whom both charismatic vision and sound arises. There is thus a suggestion that the idea of both-ways-liberation, might relate to the dual attainment of charismatic vision and sound.

Mahàli Sutta (D 6)

[155] 10, 11. “But suppose, Mahâli, he has practiced absorption (samadhi) with the double object in view of seeing and hearing, in any one direction, those heavenly sights and those heavenly sounds. Then since he has practiced absorption (samadhi) with the double object in view, he both sees the sights and hears the sounds. And, why so? Because, of the nature of his absorption (samadhi)…”

Ucca - adj . high.

uccheda-ditthi: 'annihilation-view'; s. ditthi.

Ucchindati: (u + chidi) cuts off.

Udaka: n. water.

Udaya: m. rise, beginning.

udayabbayánupassaná-ñána: 'knowledge consisting in the contemplation of rise and fall', is the first of the 9 insight-knowledges constituting the purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress'. For details, s. visuddhi, VI. 1.

uddhacca: 'restlessness', belongs to the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), and to the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.). It is one of those 4 mental factors inseparably associated with all unwholesome cognitive states (akusala-sádhárana, q.v.). Cf. Tab. II.

uddhambhágiya-samyojana: the 5 'higher fetters'; s. samyojana.

uddhamsota-akanitthagámí: 'passing upstream to the highest gods', is one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners (anágámí, q.v.).

Uggacchati: (u + gamu) rises.

uggaha-nimitta: rising, or upliftment, exalt charism, s. nimitta.

ugghatitaññu: 'one who already during a given explanation comes to penetrate the truth' (Pug.). This is one of four types of persons classified according to their ability of acquiring insight, mentioned in A. IV, 133. Cf. also vipacitaññu, neyya, pada-parama. See The Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEEL 171/174) p. 1ff.

ujukatá: (káya-, citta- ): 'uprightness' (of mental factors and of psyche), is associated with all pure cognitive states. Cf. Tab. II.

Ukkhipati: (u + khipa) throws upwards.

Uncle: mátula. m.

unconditioned, the: asankhata (q.v.). - Contemplation of the u. (= animitta); s. vipassaná.

unconscious beings: incorrectly assigned to 'asaññá-satta' (q.v.). It should be 'non-percipient,' meaning those who have ascended beyond the perception of the material world by way of the 8th stage of absorption (jhana). We should not assume beings, who have risen to the level of the 8th stage of absorption are "unconscious." To conclude thus is an excellent example of how unsuccessful it is to translate viññana as 'consciousness', when it was really 'cognition' that the Buddha was speaking of.

Under: he.t.thá. ind

understanding: s. ditthi, ñána, paññá, pariññá. - Right u., s. magga (1). sacca (IV.1).

Uneven: visama.

Uõha: adj. hot.

unit: s. kalápa, rúpa-kalápa.

unprepared, unprompted: s. asankhárika-citta.

unshakable deliverance: s. cetto-vimutti.

unshakable one, the: akuppa-dhamma (q.v.).

unthinkable things, the 4: acinteyya (q.v.).

Until: táva. ind.

unwholesome, karmically: akusala (q.v.).

Upa: pre. near, towards, next.

upacára: 'moment of access'; s. javana.

upacára-samádhi: 'neighborhood or access-concentration', is the non-canonical belief that there is a degree of concentration just before entering any of the absorptions, or jhánas. The Buddha however, did not apparently feel it necessary to recognize such a state. Thus, the editors of this dictionary consider this term an example of later obfuscation by the priestly community who apparently wished to distance the experience of attainment (phala) from the people.

upacaya, rúpassa: 'growth of the body'; s. khandha I; App.

upacchedaka-kamma: 'destructive karma'; s. karma.

upádána: 'attachment', 'clinging', according to Vis.M. XVII, is an intensified degree of craving (tanhá, q.v.). The 4 kinds of clinging are: sensuous clinging (kámupádána), clinging to views (ditthupádána), clinging to mere rules and ritual (sílabbatupádána), clinging to the personality-belief (atta-vádupádána).

(1) "What now is the sensuous clinging? Whatever with regard to sensuous objects there exists of sensuous lust, sensuous desire, sensuous attachment, sensuous passion, sensuous delusion, sensuous fetters: this is called sensuous clinging.
(2) ''What is the clinging to views? 'Alms and offerings are useless; there is no fruit and result for good and bad deeds: all such view and wrong conceptions are called the clinging to views.
(3) "What is the clinging to mere rules and ritual? The holding firmly to the view that through mere rules and ritual one may reach purification: this is called the clinging to mere rules and ritual.
(4) "What is the clinging to the personality-belief? The 20 kinds of ego-views with regard to the groups of existence (s. sakkáya-ditthi): these are called the clinging to the personality-belief" (Dhs. 1214-17).
This traditional fourfold division of clinging is not quite satisfactory. Besides kamupádána we should expect either rúpupádána and arúpupádána, or simply bhavupádána. Though the Anágámí is entirely free from the traditional 4 kinds of upádána, he is not freed from rebirth, as he still possesses bhavupádána. The Com. to Vis.M. XVII, in trying to get out of this dilemma, explains kámupádána as including here all the remaining kinds of clinging.

"Clinging' is the common rendering for u., though 'grasping' would come closer to the literal meaning of it, which is 'uptake'; s. Three Cardinal Discourses (WHEEL 17), p.19.

upádána-kkhandha: the 5 'groups of clinging', or more clearly stated in accordance with Vis.M., 'the 5 groups of existence which form the objects of clinging'. Cf. M. 44, and see khandha.

upádá-rúpa: 'derived soma, signifies the 24 secondary corporeal phenomena dependent on the 4 primary physical elements, i.e. the sense-organs and sense-objects, etc. See khandha I; App.

Upadhávati: (upa + dháva) runs up to.

upadhi: 'substratum of existence'. In the Com. there are enumerated 4 kinds: the 5 groups (khandha, q.v.), sensuous desire (káma), mental defilements (kilesa, q.v.), karma (q.v.). In the suttas it occurs frequently in Sn. (vv. 33, 364, 546, 728), and, with reference to Nibbána, in the phrase "the abandoning of all substrata" (sabbúpadhi-patinissagga; D. 14). See viveka (3).

upádi: lit. 'something which one grasps, to which one clings, i.e. the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.). In the suttas, the word is mostly used in such expressions as "One of the 2 fruits may be expected: either perfect wisdom or, if the groups are still remaining (sati upádi-sese, 'if there is a remainder of groups ), Anágámíship" (D. 22). Further (A. IV. 118): "Here the Perfect One has passed into the Nibbána-element in which no more groups are remaining (anupádi-sesa)." Cf. nibbána. upádinna-rúpa: 'karmically acquired body, or 'matter clung-to (by karma)', is identical with karma-produced soma (kammaja-rúpa; s. samutthána). In Vis.M. XIV it is said: "That corporeality which, later on, we shall refer to as 'karma-produced' (kammaja), is, for its being dependent on previous (pre-natal) karma, called 'karmically acquired'. '' The term (upádinna) occurs so in the suttas, e.g. M. 28 (WHEEL 101), 62, 140. See Dhs. §990; Khandha Vibh.

Upagacchati: (upa + gamu) goes near.

Upagaïgaü: near a river.

upaghátaka-kamma: 'destructive karma'; s. karma.

upahacca-parinibbáyí: 'one who reaches Nibbána within the first half of life', is one of the 5 kinds of Anágámí (q.v.).

Upakahati: (upa + kaha) drags down.

Upakaõõa: into the ear.

upakkilesa: 'impurities', corruptions, imperfections (a frequent rendering by 'defilements' is better reserved for kilesa, q.v.).

A list of 16 moral 'impurities of the mind' (cittassa upakkilesa) are mentioned and explained in M. 7 & 8 (WHEEI. 61/62): 1. covetousness and unrighteous greed (abhijjhá-visamalobha), 2. ill will (vyápáda), 3. anger (kodha), 4. hostility (upanáha), 5. denigration (makkha), 6. domineering (palása), 7. envy (issá), 8. stinginess (macchariya), 9. hypocrisy (máyá), 10. fraud (sátheyya), 11. obstinacy (thambha), 12. presumption (sárambha), 13. conceit (mána), 14. arrogance (atimána), 15. vanity (mada), 16. negligence (pamáda).

There are 3 groups of upakkilesa pertaining to meditation:

(a) 9 mental imperfections occurring in 'one devoted to higher mental training' (adhicitta); 3 coarse ones - evil conduct in deeds, words and thoughts; 3 medium - thoughts of sensual desire, ill will and cruelty; 3 subtle - thoughts about one's relatives, one's country and one's reputation (A. III, 100).

(b) 18 imperfections in the practice of mindfulness of breathing (ánápána-sati, q.v.), mentioned in Pts.M., Ánápána-kathá (tr. in Mindfulness of Breathing, by Ñánamoli Thera (p. 60; BPS).

(c) 10 'imperfections of insight' (-meditation, vipassanúpakkilesa); s. visuddhi V.

Upanagaraü: near a city, suburb.

upanissaya-paccaya: 'decisive support' or 'inducement', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

upapajja-vedaníya-kamma: 'karma ripening in the next birth'; s. karma.

upapatti-bhava: 'rebirth-process'; s. bhava.

upapílaka-kamma: 'suppressive kamma'; s. karma.

Uparája: m. viceroy.

upásaka: m. devotee (male). lit. 'sitting close by', i.e. a 'lay adherent', is any lay follower who is filled with faith and has taken refuge in the Buddha, his doctrine and his community of noble disciples (A. VIII, 25). His virtue is regarded as pure if he observes the 5 Precepts (pañca-síla; s. sikkhápada). He should avoid the following wrong ways of livelihood: trading in arms, in living beings, meat, alcohol and poison (A. V, 177). See also A. VIII, 75.

Upasákhá: minor branch.

upasamánussati: 'recollection of the peace of Nibbána', is the last of the 10 recollections (anussati, q.v.). "Whatsoever, o monks, there are of things, as highest of them is considered detachment (virága), i.e. the crushing of conceit, the stilling of thirst, the uprooting of clinging, the breaking through the round of rebirths, cessation of craving, detachment, extinction, Nibbána" (A. IV, 34).

Upasaïkamati: (upa + saü + kamu) approaches.

upasampajja: approaching, intending or near to, clarity

upásiká: 'female devotee; s. upásaka.

upatthambhaka-kamma: 'supportive karma'; s. karma.

upavicára: s. manopavicára.

upekkhá: 'equanimity', also called tatra-majjhattatá (q.v.), is an ethical quality that is derived from the third stage of meditative absorption (jhaná). It belongs to the sankhára-group (s. khandha) and is related to the freedom from pleasure and suffering (adukkha-m-asukhá vedaná), which is a product of the 4th stage of meditative absorption (jhaná).

upekkhá is one of the 4 sublime abodes (brahma-vihára, q.v.), and one of the factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.). See (D 2, 22 M 10, 119) Vis.M. IV, 156ff.

upekkhá-ñána = sankhárupekkhá-ñána (q.v.).

upekkhá-sambojjhanga: 'equanimity as factor of enlightenment'; s. bojjhanga.

upekkhá-sati-pari-suddhi: "purity of mindfulness due to equanimity." The Vibhanga explains: "This mindfulness is cleared, purified, clarified by equanimity" (Vbh. 261), and Buddhaghosa adds: "for the mindfulness in this jhana is quite purified, and its purification is effected by equanimity, not by anything else" (Vism.167; PP.174).

upekkhá-sukha: 'equanimous joy,' is the feeling of joy accompanied by a high degree of equanimity (upekkhá) as, e.g. in the 3rd absorption (jhána q.v.).

upekkhá-vedaná: s. vedaná.

upekkhindriya: the 'faculty of equanimity', is one of the 5 elements of feeling (M. 115) and is related to the ethical quality 'equanimity', also called upekkhá (q.v.), but is simply on a deeper or higher level.

upekkhopavicára: 'indulging in indifference'; s. manopavicára.

uposatha: lit. 'fasting', i.e. 'fasting day', is the full-moon day, the new-moon day, and the two days of the first and last moon quarters. On full-moon and new-moon days, the Disciplinary Code, the Pátimokkha, is read before the assembled community of monks (bhikkhu), while on the mentioned 4 moon-days many of the faithful lay devotees go to visit the monasteries, and there take upon themselves the observance of the 8 rules (attha-síla; sikkhápada). See A. VIII, 41ff.

uprightness: ujukatá q.v.

upstream to the highest heaven (angels/gods), passing: s. anágámí.

Ura: n. shoulder.

Urban: nágarika.

usages, the 4 noble: ariya-vamsa (q.v.).

Use: payojana. n. 

Uttara: adj. higher, superior, northern.

Uttarati: (u + tara) ascends 

utu: temperature, heat, is identical with the heat-element (tejodhátu, q.v.).

utu-samutthána (- utuja)-rúpa: 'life forms produced by temperature' as in fungal growth; s. samutthána.

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